Water shortage and pollution problems in the world ~ problems in the world

May 6, 2014

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Water shortage and pollution problems in the world

Water shortages and pollution of the biggest problems in the world

Water shortages and pollution

Water shortages and pollution

The shortage in the supply of fresh water, problems haunting, in every time and place. Today, increasingly this problem before, the increasing demand for fresh water. The rise of many voices, here and there, warning of insufficient fresh water, as a result of low global stocks of it. However, the amount of water, and they will remain the same as the amount of water itself, which was present on the surface of the earth before, and reusable times after times, through the water cycle in nature.
The amount of water above the ground, is sufficient for all needs, however, this amount is not evenly distributed. There are some areas suffering from drought, while other areas by all sources of fresh water, from rain, rivers and lakes. It is no secret that man has made ​​himself the problem of water in some areas, bad use of natural water sources.

The different countries in the world, in terms of its share of the fresh water on Earth, with an estimated share of each state, including experiencing of rain. The State like England, receives a great deal of rain water year after year. So, Fetroadtha of fresh water manifold, from rivers, lakes and groundwater stores. While a country like Saudi Arabia, receives little rainfall, making it one of the poor countries in freshwater sources.

The torrential rainfall amounts on the globe, but this precipitation is uneven. Had this rain precipitation evenly on the globe, for all regions received a quantity of water, approximately 86 cm per year. In general, the most populous regions of the world populated by enough rain falls each year, such as Europe, South East Asia, and the eastern United States, India, and China. But more than half of the land, dry areas do not fall under rain only rarely, such as the majority of Asia, and central Australia, and most of North Africa, and the Middle East. These areas suffer from the continuing shortage of water resources, as a result of the lack of what happening in rainwater. Added to this, that some of the areas with sufficient resources of rain, may be exposed in some years, or the seasons, to the acute shortage of rainfall, exposing them to the risk of water shortages and drought, as happened in the eighties in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Ethiopia, and many other countries.

Ways to protect water sources and exploitation

Ways to protect water sources and exploitation

Throughout history man's search for sources of fresh water, and settled in next to her. The many civilizations around. As a result of the abundance of these sources, of rivers and lakes, not human to discern between the hands of a fortune. Did not keep it, and has been dashed and squandered. And threw many of the towns and villages Bnfallatha and disbursement, in fresh water Vlutth.

In most of the country, estimated that pay dues to the consumption of water, according to the size of the house or housing, without regard to the amount of water being consumed, prompting the residents of these homes, the wasteful consumption of fresh water. However, in some cities, ride counters to estimate the water, on the basis of actual consumption. In this case, increasing the value of benefits paid, depending on the amount of water consumed, which encourages saving water, and reduce wastage of which, by repairing the water system in the house, and water pipes damaged.

It also began in many cities, projects benefit from sewage, by processing rather than discharged into the sea or fresh water bodies and pollution. The use of treated wastewater, in land reclamation and cultivation, irrigating gardens, streets, instead of fresh water.

As some began to desert the country, in the implementation of projects Aamab sea water, to be used as a source of fresh water, after it decreased freshwater resources, and the eyes of the wells and lakes. These countries have also begun to conduct serious research, about the possibility of dropping rain artificially, but these ideas are still the process of research, because it is very expensive at the present time.

Treatment of drinking water
Treatment of drinking water

The growing global interest in the quality of drinking water, from the mid-twentieth century. It has been translated this interest develop health standards for drinking water standards, suitable for human consumption, so as to ensure hygiene and protection of human, has been associated with many of the epidemics and spread of drinking water contaminated, as happened in the cholera epidemic in the city of Hamburg in 1829, when he was injured more than 17 thousand , died and more than half of them as a result of the epidemic. Was initiated by the United Nations to work on issuing these standards, through one of its specialized organizations, namely the World Health Organization (WHO), which has issued several versions, which contain the specifications of drinking water, and health standards, which shall not be less drinking water for.

To reach these standards and standards for drinking water, it was necessary to expose drinking water, whether surface water or groundwater, for many of the transactions, to reach the maximum degree of purity. In order to conform to specifications of this water, with drinking water standards of World Records. Include drinking water treatment and purification, many steps and stages, including: the stage of separation of sand and suspended solids from the water, then stage flocculation and coagulation Coagulation & Flocculation, followed by phase deposition Sedimentation, then stage filtration sand Sand Filtration, and ending the treatment process by adding chlorine, which is known as process "chlorination" Chlorination. And these steps are followed in many water treatment plants built on the Nile River, to purify the waters of the Nile, and many of the wells, which draws its water from the floor during classes.

Water pollution
Water pollution

Although the human need for urgent water, and a link to its survival survival and water purity, but in spite of that, did not improve dealing with water, as a result of the increase in population activities, agricultural, industrial, near the source of this water, which reduced the properties of natural and chemical, as a result of the increase the focus of many of these pollutants in the water. As a result of the increase in these activities, I lost this water is its ability to get rid of pollutants, and began the symptoms of those pollutants in the ways of the alarm, where deterioration of the crop of the seas and oceans and rivers, and the organisms died, and became extinct some of them, and the water has become in many areas and places, unfit for human consumption.

There are many sources of pollution, which affect the aquatic environment, can be divided into four sections:

Physical pollution.
Chemical pollution.
Biological contamination.
 Radioactive contamination.

Physical pollution: results in changing the standard specifications of the water, through the change in temperature or salinity, or the increase in suspended solids do, whether out of organic or inorganic.
Physical pollution
The resulting increase in the salinity of the water, often, for the increase in the amount of evaporation of the water of the lake, or river, in dry places, without renewing them, or in the presence of a lack of water sources. The physical pollution caused by the high temperature, have, in most cases, as a result of pouring water cooling plants and nuclear reactors, near bodies of water, in these bodies, resulting in the increase in temperature, lack of oxygen, leading to the death of organisms in these places.

Chemical pollution:
The result of this pollution often for increased industrial activities, or agricultural, near bodies of water, leading to leakage of various chemicals to it. The many mineral salts, acids, fertilizers and pesticides, the outputs of these activities which lead to leakage in water pollution, and change attributes , There are many toxic metals, food in the water, leading to poisoning if found in significant concentrations, such as barium, cadmium, lead and mercury. The non-toxic metals, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, the increase in water lead to certain diseases, as well as to change the characteristics of natural water, such as taste and make it unpalatable. There is also contamination with organic matter, such as nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, which leads its presence in the water to change its smell, and the growth of weeds and algae, which leads to increased water consumption, and increase evaporation. May eventually lead to the phenomenon of premature aging of lakes Eutrophication, as it turns these lakes to swamps filled with grass and algae, may in the end turn out to dry land

Biological pollution: 
Biological pollution

 The result of this pollution from increased micro-organisms that cause diseases, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites in the water. This produces pollutants, mostly, for the mixing of human and animal waste water, either directly by dispensing directly into freshwater bodies, or saline, or by indirectly by water mixing with sewage or agricultural. The existence of this type of pollution, injury to many diseases. So, you should not use this water for drinking or washing, but after exposing them to different treatment Palmakmat, such as chlorine and mechanical filtration filters

Radioactive contamination: 

 the source of this contamination is, often, by radiation leakage from nuclear reactors, or by getting rid of this waste, in the seas and oceans and rivers. Often this does not happen contamination of any change in the characteristics of natural water, which makes it more types seriousness, where absorbed by objects in the water, in most cases, and accumulate, and then transmitted to humans, while taking these neighborhoods, spoke of the many serious effects , including bugs and transitions that occur in the genes  

Pollution of surface water 

Pollution of rivers and lakes:

This is the most dangerous types of pollution of water pollution at all, because it affects the drinking water and water used in agriculture and irrigation. The resulting contamination of rivers and lakes, from several sources, including the discharge of pollutants resulting from various chemical plants, and sewage in the rivers and oceans. The remnants of agricultural drainage, laden with many organic fertilizers, and flood waters loaded with dissolved organic and chemical, is one of the sources of serious pollution of rivers and lakes, which can not be quantified or controlled. However, in the modern era, and with the increase in industrial activity and air pollution, acid rain has become a problem of the dangers that threaten freshwater sources in the world, especially in industrialized countries.


Pollution of the seas and oceans:
 Lead pollution of the seas and oceans, primarily, to the disruption of the ecological balance of the planet. It makes it more complicated, multiple sources of pollution and the difficulty of age or application of laws to protect the seas and oceans, where it is crossing the seas and oceans of the global international navigation. There are many sources of pollution of the seas and oceans, including sanitation, where emptied many states and countries bordering on the seas and oceans, water dispensing health in these bodies of water. This has caused serious damage to many sources of water bodies, such as, for example, what happened in the Mediterranean Sea, early seventies. But the plan to build treatment plants, sewage water, in all the coastal cities of the Mediterranean. Contributed significantly to the decline in the level of pollution caused by sewage.

It does not vary much for the exchange industry, where the disposal of industrial waste industrial countries and toxic waste and radiation, at sea by ships, or Tdvinha in the bottom of the ocean. It is also leak oil from the oil fields, or incidents of tankers laden with oil, one of the important causes of pollution in the seas and oceans. Adding to the seriousness of these sources, the lack of commitment of many countries to apply international conventions and treaties, which was established and signed to protect the environment, such as the Treaty of London in 1972, and the Convention on Kuwait to protect the marine environment, which was signed by the Gulf States in 1978.

Groundwater contamination:

Longstanding wells were sources of clean water, which can not be polluted waters as a result of the effect of filtration of the soil deposited on the water, but this belief has now changed.

In many cases, the wells used close to the ground, as is the case in shallow wells, and increasing the chance of contamination of biological or chemical.

In the case of deep wells, which are deeper than about 40-50 feet, are considerably less chances of contamination, because the water pass in this case the layers semi-permeable porous, working often on the nomination of the water and rid it of most of the impurities. However, the evidence, gathered in the past few years, has shown that some pesticides and chemicals, and found their way into the water-bearing layer Aquifers in the ground. This is the latest scientific information in very dangerous. The evidence suggests that exposure to large stocks of fresh water from the land, to pollution from many sources. One of these sources:

gricultural activities: the use of water leads to the old ways, such as flooding or excessive use of water, with the misuse of pesticides and fertilizers, to increase the concentration of salts and minerals and nitrates in groundwater, particularly if there is no scientific agricultural drainage systems.

The use of injection wells: the wells used to inject industrial waste and radiation, in aquifers deep saline aquifers. However, it may result in the leakage of these wastes into the upper layers of water-bearing fresh through pipelines across the court, or by the force in the direction of aquifers of fresh water, through cracks in the layers is implemented. 

Groves of exchange: a drilling cabins, built in the villages and towns, where there is no sewerage systems as a means to get rid of waste and wastewater. And the use of lead in these orchards often, to leak its load of bacteria and organic materials to the aquifer, and to contamination. 

Saltwater intrusion: He spoke in wells near the sea salt, as a result of pumping and excessive use of fresh water, leading to the intrusion of salt water from the sea in the direction of aquifers, and mixing with fresh water. As a result, this water becomes unfit for drinking or agriculture.
Surface Disposal of waste: and this happens, often, in industrialized countries, where buried industrial waste this country, in the storage pools superficial
For example, are disposed of about 390 million tons of solid waste in the United States of America, by being buried in designated areas on the surface of the earth. Also being disposed of about 10 thousand million gallons of liquid waste by placing it in storage pools superficial. Failure to tighten the isolation of these ponds, the waste to leak into the aquifer fresh, as is 10% of this waste is a real danger, on human health and the environment.
 And in the event of contamination of groundwater, it is difficult, if not impossible, to get rid of this pollution, or making any treatment of water in aquifers. It makes it more complicated, the presence of this water into the ground and the slow movement, so that the speed of entry into force of this water into the ground, no more than several meters per day, or perhaps several meters per year, depending on the place and type of groundwater. This means the passage of long years before getting rid of any contamination, or by the discovery of any contamination. Leading to its spread through sewers and rivers, the current in the ground.

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